A Microalbumin test evaluates urine for the presence of a protein called albumin. Albumin is normally found in the blood and filtered by the kidneys. When the kidneys are working properly, albumin is not present in the urine. However, when the kidneys are damaged, small amounts of albumin leak into the urine. This condition is called Microalbumin.
Microalbumin is most frequently caused by kidney damage from diabetes. However, many other conditions can lead to kidney damage, such as high blood pressure, heart failure, cirrhosis, or systemic lupus erythmatosus(SLE). If kidney damage is not treated at an early stage, larger amounts of albumin and protein may leak into the urine. This condition is called macroalbuminuria or proteinuria. When the kidneys spill protein, it can mean serious kidney damage is present. This can lead to chronic kidney disease. A microalbumin urine test can be done on a sample of urine collected randomly (usually after the first time you urinate in the morning), a sample collected over a 24-hour period, or a sample collected over a specific period of time, such as 4 hours or overnight.